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住建部:前7月棚改新开工407万套 占年度目标70%

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 卫浴行业告别爆发式增长时代 工程市场成必争之地 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

南京3.2万大学毕业生领到租房补贴

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

同样,A型与B型人格理论指出,B型人与A型人截然相反。根据定义,B型人格的人生活压力较小。尽管他们在没有实现自己的目标时更容易忽视身体或精神上的压力,但通常可以稳定工作,享受成功。
8. 2012年搞笑诺贝尔奖之流体力学奖
The report also found traffic congestion in first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Shanghai have stopped getting worse with local government efforts.
过去4年里束缚经济增长的主要因素就是停滞不前的薪酬水平。时薪年平均增长率仅为2%—仅有过去美国长期薪酬增长率的三分之二。
何塞安东尼奥梅亚德(José Antonio Meade)会成为下一任墨西哥总统吗?
The big question is what oil prices will do in 2015. Oil prices are unsustainably low right now – many high-cost oil producers and oil-producing regions are currently operating in the red. That may work in the short-term, but over the medium and long-term, companies will be forced out of the market, precipitating a price rise. The big question is when they will rise, and by how much.
n. 文件,公文,文档

不过,仍有人看涨油市。
斯蒂芬?韦格斯蒂尔(Stefan Wagstyl)柏林补充报道
Quantum Break
《美国谍梦》(The Americans),FX,1月28日播出。这部剧精彩地将冷战间谍惊悚剧与家庭剧融为一体,第三季一开始,潜伏在华盛顿的克格勃小队感受到了苏联的阿富汗战争的压力。弗兰克·兰格拉(Frank Langella)加入演员阵容,饰演剧中夫妻间谍的新联系人,取代了玛戈·马丁代尔(Margo Martindale)饰演的克劳迪娅(Claudia)。顺便说一句,八天后NBC即将首播的《忠诚》(Allegiance)是讲述潜伏在美国的俄罗斯间谍的。哈。
1、阅兵仪式

Footnotes

  • 城乡融合发展有了崭新路线图
  • 5.同性婚姻

[k?m'pein]
据斯派克回忆,一天,拍摄工作结束后,另一位编剧詹妮弗·克里滕登在走廊叫住他,问:"你一定要这样吗?你确定这样不会毁了朱莉娅的前程吗?"考虑到当年朱莉娅凭此剧获得艾美奖,我们不妨说这场舞戏其实让这位女演员在演艺事业上更进了一步。为了怀旧,您不妨抽空再去回顾一下伊莱恩和她著名的"伊莱恩舞步"。
After all, during the last round of collections, the most striking pieces — from Louis Vuitton, Dior, Proenza Schouler, Narciso Rodriguez — had a streamlined momentum that wasn’t dragged down by any decade-related reference, or identity. They were clothes that went striding into the future, freed from the weight of the past.
Perhaps just as important, stable or falling prices will boost the inflation-adjusted pay of U.S. workers and gives them more bang for their buck. "It's an unambiguous positive for household demand," said Neil Dutta, head of economics at Renaissance Macro Research. "People will have more money to spend."
Among 36,000 who have reached celebrity status on the Internet, 74 percent are women and 87.8 percent are between 17 to 33 years old, while 89 percent have a college education.
v. 强调,着重

石材行业遭打压 六大措施成“通行证”

References

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