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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

The end of November is here. As I wrote Monday, recent history suggests nine teams have pretty much already been knocked out of playoff contention. Yet, none of them are straight-up tanking.

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But the economic base for these capabilities is steadily declining.
支持:影片可能会凭借出色的票房表现从缓慢变革的奥斯卡投票人群上获益。
That an iPhone mini and a LTE license from the Chinese government this year or next could finally persuade China Mobile (CHL), with 700 million subscribers, to cut a deal with Apple.

与此同时,大学毕业生选择继续深造的意向也降低了,这让今年选择就业的人数比例达到了75.6%,而去年这一数据为71.2%。
Wright is one of the most original figures of British Romantic painting, and this composition, held in the same private collection in Derbyshire since 1840, had an approachable low estimate of 100,000 because of condition issues and — not insignificantly — the fact that it was a charity donation to benefit Syrian refugees. As a result, at least three bidders pushed the price to 665,000 with fees.
芝加哥大学的一个研究小组制造了一种能够向大脑传递信号的假手来解决这个问题。他们以猴子为测试对象,研究动物大脑对触摸信号的反应。当装备了可以刺激大脑的假手后,那些猴子的反应就好像他们身体接触到了物体一样。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

住建部:去库存获初步成效 继续引导农民进城安居

好市多首席执行官克雷格杰利内克
Baby Driver recently placed on the National Board of Review’s Top 10 list. The film holds a 93% on Rotten Tomatoes and took in over $100 million dollars at the box office.
Paramore, 'After Laughter'

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

今年年底10年期美国国债收益率会突破3%吗?
赢家:湖人
Last year was the hottest on earth since record-keeping began in 1880, scientists reported on Friday, underscoring warnings about the risks of runaway greenhouse gas emissions and undermining claims by climate change contrarians that global warming had somehow stopped.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • This year's best midseason trade action happened early:
  • 龙头房企积极拿地 专家:明年楼市行情的不确定较大
  • On the subject of #MeToo, she said: 'I just think they're douche bags. They're not champions. I just think they're losers. I don't like them.
  • 山东日照关停2家建材企业 污染治理集中攻坚效果显著
  • 专家:房价涨势陆续放缓 下半年仍需稳字当头
  • There are, for example, clear differences in the way the products are pitched to investors in the US and Asia. A high proportion — some estimate 90 per cent — of funds in Asia are commission-based. This disadvantages ETFs because they are openly traded on stock exchanges and are not structured to pay commissions to banks, brokerages or financial advisers that might recommend them, unlike the mutual fund industry in the region.
    许多人和伙伴一起学习效果会更好。如果你也是这样的话,可以在班上组建一个学习小组,或者加入一个已有的小组。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 山西2019年将搬迁4000个因煤炭开采面临地质灾害威胁的“重灾户”, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

雷士内斗致渠道遭竞争对手“围剿”业内称竞争对手迎时机

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

儿童家具不合格率居高不下 消费者对国标理解不够

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • prosperity
    "You can no longer have some countries go first and others come in later, because there is no more time," said Glen P. Peters, a scientist at the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research in Oslo, who helped compile the new numbers. "It needs to be all hands on deck now."
  • 这位八年级学生的候选资格还包括克服年龄歧视,他说,他对最高掌权者州长的追求不是开玩笑的。
    Despite the overall upward trends in financing, the amount of capital raised by women-owned businesses has historically lagged when compared to men. For example, in the first half of 2013, women made up only 16 percent of businesses seeking funding, with only 24 percent of the women receiving angel funding, Plum Alley, an online e-commerce platform for female entrepreneurs, recently launched a crowdfunding platform specifically focused on helping women innovators get to the next level. And as the first platform of its kind in the exploding crowdfunding space (expected to hit $3.98 billion next year), we can certainly expect Plum Alley to play a big role in the entrepreneurial landscape for women in the year to come.
    Gitanjali表示,她想要进一步改善改设备,这样它最终就能进入市场了。
    All-cash buyers. Skittish lenders. Skyrocketing prices. Anemic listings. These realities haunt buyers, turning the house hunt into a demoralizing slog. Unfortunately, buyers will probably have to soldier through another year of a market that favors sellers.
    “听起来,哈佛对学生的私生活管得太宽了”,曾为OJ?辛普森等多位名人做过代理律师的德肖维茨说。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 美对华钢材产品发起反倾销反补贴调查
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 家具行业四大新常态 你知道哪个?

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Together, the world's 10 highest-paid models banked a cumulative $109.5 million between June 1, 2016, and June 1, 2017, before taxes and fees.
Average age: 36
Common areas include two living rooms, both with walls of glass opening to a patio and an in-ground pool. Ceilings rise as high as 28 feet; doors throughout are Spanish cedar. Among the stainless-steel kitchen appliances are a Fisher & Paykel range and two Sub-Zero refrigerators, as well as steel cabinets and sinks. A breakfast bar separates the kitchen from the dining area, which also opens to the patio and pool.
vt. 使流通
The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, has a planet orbiting it not much bigger than Earth. Its "year" is only 11 days. But it's in the habitable zone because Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star about 100 times fainter than the sun. And there's hot news that a similar star, 40 light years away, may have three planets in its habitable zone.
A cheery New Year hold lots of happiness for you!给你特别的祝福,愿新年带给你无边的幸福、如意。
[s?'plai]

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • In other words, investors are paying far more for Tesla’s future promises than today’s performance by other luxury car manufacturers. Daimler, the manufacturer of Mercedes-Benz, sold more than 2.5 million vehicles last year and has a market cap of about $85 billion. So, although it sells 70 times more vehicles than Tesla, its market cap is less than three times greater.
  • 美国“好莱坞社区”落地北京
  • Goldie Hawn’s award for best supporting actress in the 1970 film Cactus Flower rests somewhere altogether more zen – in the “India Room” in which she likes to meditate. Hers isn’t the only award to apparently emit good vibes – Russell Crowe’s award for best actor, which he won for his role as the bang-on-trend, leather miniskirt clad Maximus Decimus Meridius in Ridley Scott’s 2000 film Gladiator, is kept in a chicken coop on the actor’s Australian ranch. Crowe apparently thinks it helps the hens lay bigger eggs.
    Private investment for the year ended October was up 2.9 per cent, up 0.4 percentage points, while state investment dropped 1.1 percentage points to 20.5 per cent.
  • 北京站28分钟到通州
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • It was apparent not just in obvious brand extensions, like Banana Republic’s “Mad Men” collection (designed in collaboration with the show’s costume supremo, Janie Bryant), but in more pervasive, unspoken ways: in silhouette and print; in hemline and seam. And in the clear belief, visible on catwalks everywhere, that the 1960s were the answer to every moment of pallid inspiration, or aesthetic doubt.
    二十多年的旨在减少温室气体排放增长的全球谈判几乎没有进展。但在2014年,人们看到了针对这个问题的大规模政治行动的迹象,在30多万人去年九月在纽约举行大游行之后,世界各地的其他城市中也有数以万计的人走上街头。
  • Two of Summly’s employees will move to Yahoo’s California headquarters, but – for now – Mr D’Aloisio is resisting the lure of Silicon Valley.
    Fiat will seek to renegotiate the terms of its investment in Chrysler.
  • Best chance: If there are nine or 10 best picture nominees, it could grab a spot. Jordan Peele's screenplay looks certain to be recognized.
    世界知识产权组织总干事弗朗西斯·居里表示:“投资创新是提高长期经济增长的关键。在当前的经济形势下,发现新的增长来源并利用全球创新所带来的机会是所有利益相关者的优先事项。”
  • They came together in resurgent nationalism and xenophobia.
    单词extend 联想记忆:
    贝克(Beck),《说再见》(Say Goodbye), Capito
  • 星期三,美国财政部长杰克·卢宣布了这一计划。他说,财政部将发起一个名为“新10元”的社交媒体运动,并将举行一系列公民会议,征集人们的想法,以确定在新版10美元钞票上印哪位女性的画像。
    7.Taylor Swift
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 2017资本市场热度延续 家居企业上市潮涌动 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

“楼市去库存”2016年地方或有八大去库存底牌

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

绿地否认与女记者被打有关 公司保安被拘留

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

北京5月份二手房成交量18096套 达14个月新高

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

欧盟"双规"阻截不良品 LED灯具出口遭困

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • The FT European Business School Ranking 2016 measures the quality and breadth of schools’ postgraduate programmes. It is based on their performance in the five main rankings published by the Financial Times each year: MBA, Executive MBA (EMBA), Masters in Management (MiM) and the two rankings for executive education. Only schools that take part in all five are eligible for a full score.
  • 3. Dan Weiss “Fourteen” (Pi Recordings) There’s so much in “Fourteen,” the album-length composition by the drummer Dan Weiss: meticulous chamber maneuvers; avant-garde yowling; wordless vocals of new-music and northern Indian pedigree. More impressive than the expansive frame of reference is the fact that Mr. Weiss, marshaling about a dozen of his peers, spins it all into a flowing fabric.
  • “碎尸案别墅”拍出后 拖欠的物业费谁付?

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 他赢得了名动词奖,而其姐妹奖,最佳动词名词化奖,则由另一位顾问凭借这句“全球联络”(global touch-base)摘得。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 通用汽车(GM)咸鱼翻身不易,2010年举行首次公开募股一事就别惦记了。
    支持:影片演技大获好评,尤其是故事的主人公——那些孩子们,以及旅馆经理的扮演者威廉达福。
    “We have not really assumed China will get better in the rest of the year,” said James Quincey, Coca-Cola’s chief operating officer. He said juice sales fell double digits in the second quarter in the country and Coca-Cola drinks dropped single digits.
  • [stres]

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Bella is the youngest model on the list, having just turned 21 last month.
  • 未来石材卖场将形成13种新型发展模式
  • [?'fektid]

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 浙江:江干区首个蓝领公寓“馨家公寓” 昨起开始申请
  • Household substance abuse
  • 长租公寓:楼市下一个风口?
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

亚太区: 上半年房地产投资总额达810亿美元

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 盘点2014上半年日子难过的那些家居建材企业
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 举报声中违建项目拔地而起 层层监管为何变层层失守
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

5.星巴克。品牌喜爱度:26%/社交商务指数排名:26

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

2.Rocky
facile(adj 易做到的;不花力气的;性格温和的)face,le乐:想让脸乐还不容易吗?Fac=face,ilit,ate吃:用脸吃饭还不容易吗?
Judge for yourself.
competition
媒体非常令人讨厌,我们知道这一点,殿下,但您(以及您所代表的王室)可以用更有尊严的方式来表达您的关切。
待售房产:一栋带有三间卧室、两间全功能浴室和两间半功能浴室的房屋
大多数大宗商品的价格自2016年2月以来有所回升,单位价格的同比降幅已收窄至约5%。
如果一个“推文幼稚的像个幼儿园小朋友”一样最年长的人,都可以当选总统,那为什么反过来不试一下,看看年轻人能否当选并明智地执政?
The report by iResearch Consulting Group and Sina Weibo, China's most popular microblogging platform, was released at a forum in Shanghai, co-organized by Weibo and telecom giant Huawei .
他补充说道:“我很兴奋能有机会重返中国,并享受这个国家的文化以及把NBA现场比赛的激动直接带给中国球迷。”

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

巴曙松:房地产业有望明年触底 一线城市别担心

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • The IOM says fewer than 35,000 migrants, or about three percent, have crossed by land into Greece and Bulgaria from Turkey.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 我是否徘徊过去?回顾过去,沉迷于我们遗憾或者错过的事情是非常诱人和几乎令人不由自主的。学会放手,只专注于当前发生的事和你今日将要面临的选择吧。
  • O2O成装饰建材转型金钥匙 需以产品为核心
  • The dollar value of China’s exports and imports grew in November after two months of contraction and in the face of a rally by the greenback that followed last month’s US presidential election.
  • 昆明建材:年底资金趋紧 市场价格小跌
  • 源于:relax(v 放松;休息)

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 河北省长张庆伟:压减钢铁产能 将关停60%企业
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • The Caixin-sponsored composite PMI for November came in at 50.5, the first time it had broken through the 50-mark separating contraction from expansion since July.
  • To be brief, people with type C personalities are perfectionists, consistent and will never break the rules. Unlike their "sister" type A; type C personalities tend to take their time with the details and often check and recheck their work for accuracy. They tend to be deep thinkers and like to know every detail in regards to their work and life.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

房地产复苏脆弱 涂料行业旧房重涂是重点

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